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摘要:This section measures your ability to write in English to communicate in an academic environment. ?? There are two writing questions in this
This section measures your ability to write in English to communicate in an academic environment.
?? There are two writing questions in this section.
?? For question 1, you will read a passage and listen to a lecture about the same topic. You may take notes while you read and listen. Then you will write a response to a question based on what you have read and heard. You may look back at the passage when answering the question. You may use your notes to help you answer the question. You have 20 minutes to plan and write your response.
?? For question 2, you will write an essay based on your own knowledge and experience. You have 30 minutes to plan and complete your essay.
语音播放 ?
1.? Directions: Give yourself 3 minutes to read the passage.
?? Endotherms are animals such as modern birds and mammals that keep their body temperatures constant. For instance, humans are endotherms and maintain an internal temperature of 37℃, no matter whether the environment is warm or cold. Because dinosaurs were reptiles, and modern reptiles are not endotherms, it was long assumed that dinosaurs were not endotherms. However, dinosaurs differ in many ways from modern reptiles, and there is now considerable evidence that dinosaurs were, in fact, endotherms.
?? Polar dinosaurs
?? One reason for believing that dinosaurs were endotherms is that dinosaur fossils have been discovered in polar regions. Only animals that can maintain a temperature well above that of the surrounding environment could be active in such cold climates.
?? Leg position and movement
?? There is a connection between endothermy and the position and movement of the legs. The physiology of endothermy allows sustained physical activity, such as running. But running is efficient only if an animal's legs are positioned underneath its body, not at the body's side, as they are for crocodiles and many lizards. The legs of all modern endotherms are underneath the body, and so were the legs of dinosaurs. This strongly suggests that dinosaurs were endotherms.
?? Haversian canals
?? There is also a connection between endothermy and bone structure. The bones of endotherms usually include structures called Haversian canals. These canals house nerves and blood vessels that allow the living animal to grow quickly, and rapid body growth is in fact a characteristic of endothermy. The presence of Haversian canals in bone is a strong indicator that the animal is an endotherm, and fossilized bones of dinosaurs are usually dense with Haversian canals.
?? Listen to Track 20.
??
?? Directions: You have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Your response will be judged on the basis of the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the points in the lecture and their relationship to the reading passage. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words.
?? Listen to Track 21.
?? Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they challenge the specific points made in the reading passage.
答案:What is important to understand from the lecture is that the professor disagrees with the arguments presented in the reading to support the idea that dinosaurs were endotherms, namely that dinosaurs inhabited polar regions; that their legs were positioned underneath their bodies; and that their bones included structures called Haversian canals.
?? In your response, you should convey the reasons presented by the professor for why the information presented in the reading does not prove that dinosaurs were endotherms. A high-scoring response will include the following points made by the professor that cast doubt on the points made in the reading:
??
?? Your response is scored using the Integrated Writing Rubric (see Appendix A). A response that receives a score of 5 clearly conveys all three of the main points in the table using accurate sentence structure and vocabulary.
[听力原文]
TRACK 20 TRANSCRIPT
Narrator
?? Now listen to part of a lecture on the topic you just read about.
Professor
?? Many scientists have problems with the arguments you read in the passage. They don't think those arguments prove that dinosaurs were endotherms.
?? Take the polar dinosaur argument. When dinosaurs lived, even the polar regions where dinosaur fossils have been found were much warmer than today—warm enough during part of the year for animals that were not endotherms to live. And during the months when the polar regions were cold, the so-called polar dinosaurs could have migrated to warmer areas or hibernated like many modern reptiles do. So the presence of dinosaur fossils in polar regions doesn't prove the dinosaurs were endotherms.
?? Well, what about the fact that dinosaurs had their legs placed under their bodies, not out to the side, like a crocodile's? That doesn't necessarily mean dinosaurs were high-energy endotherms built for running. There's another explanation for having legs under the body: this body structure supports more weight. So with the legs under their bodies, dinosaurs could grow to a very large size. Being large had advantages for dinosaurs, so we don't need the idea of endothermy and running to explain why dinosaurs evolved to have their legs under their bodies.
?? OK, so how about bone structure? Many dinosaur bones do have Haversian canals, that's true, but dinosaur bones also have growth rings. Growth rings are a thickening of the bone that indicates periods of time when the dinosaurs weren't rapidly growing. These growth rings are evidence that dinosaurs stopped growing or grew more slowly during cooler periods. This pattern of periodic growth—ya know, rapid growth followed by no growth or slow growth and then rapid growth again—is characteristic of animals that are not endotherms. Animals that maintain a constant body temperature year round, as true endotherms do, grow rapidly even when the environment becomes cool.
TRACK 21 TRANSCRIPT
Narrator
?? Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they challenge the specific points made in the reading passage.
解析:
语音播放
You will now listen to part of a lecture. You will then be asked a question about it. After you hear the question, give yourself 20 seconds to prepare your response. Then record yourself speaking for 60 seconds.
?? Listen to Track 19.
??
?? Using points and examples from the lecture, explain the importance of visual elements in painting.
答案:To respond to this particular question, you should talk about some of the visual elements of painting and explain why they are important. You should include relevant points and examples from the lecture (and not from any other source).
?? To begin your response, you should briefly state the main idea, that visual elements convey meaning and express emotion in paintings. You would then talk about the different points the professor gives to support this. You would say, for example, that colors can evoke strong emotions, and give the example that red can evoke anger or blue can make somebody feel calm. Then you could talk about texture. You could say that texture can be physical or visual or that texture can also evoke emotions; for example, a smooth texture can be calming. You could then talk about how artists combine these elements to create meaning; for example, strong colors, such as reds, plus wide sweeping brushstrokes suggest chaos and stronger emotions.
?? As the goal of this item is to provide a summary of the professor's lecture, you do not need to repeat all of the details from the lecture. You need to only give sufficient details to explain why visual details are important in a painting.
?? Your response should be intelligible, should demonstrate effective use of grammar and vocabulary, and should be well developed and coherent. Your response is scored using the Integrated Speaking Rubric (see Appendix A).
[听力原文]
Narrator
?? Listen to part of a talk in an art appreciation class.
Professor
?? In order for art to communicate—to appeal to the emotions or the intellect—it has to combine various visual elements to express meaning... or emotion. It's really the visual components of the work—things like color, texture, shape, lines—and how these elements work together that tell us something about the work. Artists combine and manipulate these visual elements to express a message or to create a mood.
?? Think about how a painter might use color, for example. You all know from experience that different colors appeal in different ways to the senses and can convey different meanings. An artist chooses certain colors to evoke a particular mood and make powerful statements. The color red, for example, is a strong color and can conjure up strong emotions... such as extreme joy, or excitement... or even anger. Blue, on the other hand, is considered a cool color. Blue colors tend to have a calming effect on viewers.
?? Another visual element important to art is texture. By texture, I mean the surface quality or "feel" of the work... its smoothness, or roughness, or softness? Now, of course, in some types of art, the texture is physical—it can actually be touched by the fingers. But in painting, for example, texture can be visual. The way an artist paints certain areas of a painting can create the illusion of texture... an object's smoothness, or roughness, or softness. A rough texture can evoke stronger emotions and strength while a smooth texture is more calming and less emotional.
?? As I said earlier, artists often combine elements to convey a message about the work. Take a painting that, say, uses a lot of strong colors like reds and oranges and... and uses brushstrokes that are broad—wide, sweeping brushstrokes that suggest a rough texture. Well, these elements together can convey a wilder, more chaotic emotion in the viewer than, more than in, say... a painting with tiny, smooth brushstrokes and soft or pale colors. Artists use these visual effects and the senses they arouse to give meaning to their work.
Narrator
?? Using points and examples from the lecture, explain the importance of visual elements in painting.
解析:
语音播放
You will now listen to part of a conversation. You will then be asked a question about it. After you hear the question, give yourself 20 seconds to prepare your response. Then record yourself speaking for 60 seconds.
?? Listen to Track 18.
??
?? Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Then state which of the two solutions from the conversation you would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation.
答案:To respond to this particular question you should briefly describe the problem. It is enough to say that the man has left his class schedule back at the dorm and doesn't know what room his class is in. You do not need to give many details at this point.
?? Next, you need to choose one of the two solutions and explain why you think that solution is best. The two solutions in this conversation are: 1) go to the student center and use a computer to find out where the class is, or 2) check each lecture hall until he finds his class. It does not matter which of the two proposed solutions you chose, since there is no "right" solution or "wrong" solution. You should choose the solution that you think is best and support your choice with reasons why you think it is best. The reasons you give can include information provided by the speakers as well as your own experiences.
?? For example, if you believe the first solution is preferable, you would probably begin by saying that you think it would be best for the man to go use the computer in the student center in order to find the room number, then you would proceed to explain why. There are any number of reasons you can give: you might say that it's best to check the computer because he can also find out where his other classes are, since he doesn't have the schedule. You could also speak about the disadvantages of the second solution; you might say that he would be embarrassed to look in the other rooms, and he wouldn't know what the professor looks like anyway. Remember, this type of question can be answered in many different ways.
?? Your response should be intelligible, should demonstrate effective use of grammar and vocabulary, and should be well developed and coherent. Your response is scored using the Integrated Speaking Rubric (see Appendix A).
[听力原文]
Narrator
?? Now listen to a conversation between two students on campus.
Male student
?? Hi... good morning. Could you help me with something?
Female student
?? Um. Maybe. What's up?
Male student
?? Well, I'm a first-year student.
Female student
?? Everything going OK?
Male student
?? Actually no. Um, this is a little embarrassing—I think I left my class schedule back at my dorm.
Female student
?? Hmm. Not a good thing to do on the first day of classes.
Male student
?? Yeah. So I'm not sure where my class is. I think I remember it was supposed to be here in Smith Hall,
Female student
?? There's a computer for student use in the student center. You could go over there, look it up and check the room number. But you'd have to hurry.
Male student
?? Hmmm... That's not a bad idea... I could check my schedule for the whole rest of the day at the same time... I don't know where any of my other classes are either. But I don't want to be late... make a bad impression with the professor on the first day. It's actually my very first class—introduction to psychology...
Female student
?? Psychology? Oh, OK. You're definitely in the right building. And if it's introduction to psychology, it's gonna be a big class, in which case it probably meets in a big lecture hall. There are only three lecture halls in the building—one on every floor. Just check each floor till you find yours. There's an elevator, so you should be able to move fast.
Male student
?? Yeah, but I don't know what the professor looks like or anything. How will I know whether it's my class or not? It'd be sort of embarrassing—sticking my head into each lecture hall asking if I was in the right place.
Female student
?? Well, you might luck out and find it the first time.
Narrator
?? Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Then state which of the two solutions from the conversation you would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation.
解析:
?语音播放
You will now read a short passage and listen to a lecture on the same topic. You will then be asked a question about them. After you hear the question, give yourself 30 seconds to prepare your response. Then record yourself speaking for 60 seconds.
?? Listen to Track 16.
??
Verbal and Nonverbal Communication

?? When we speak with other people face-to-face, the nonverbal signals we give—our facial expressions, hand gestures, body movements, and tone of voice—often communicate as much as, or more than, the words we utter. When our nonverbal signals, which we often produce unconsciously, agree with our verbal message, the verbal message is enhanced and supported, made more convincing. But when they conflict with the verbal message, we may be communicating an entirely different and more accurate message than what we intend.
?? Listen to Track 17.
??
?? Explain how the examples from the professor's lecture illustrate the relationship between verbal and nonverbal communication.
答案:To respond to this particular question, you should discuss how verbal and nonverbal communication are related and explain how the examples that the professor gives support the reading text. You should include relevant points and examples from the lecture (and not from any other source).
?? To begin your response, you could give a brief summary of the reading, such as a definition of what verbal and nonverbal communication is; that is, that gestures and body movements often provide as much information to a person as spoken language does. You could also say that nonverbal signals can agree or conflict with a verbal message.
?? Then you should explain how the professor's examples illustrate these general ideas. In the first example, the professor's happy nonverbal behaviors on seeing his uncle, such as his big smile, and his jumping up and down, agreed with his verbal message, so the verbal message was supported. You could also say that his uncle knew he was very happy.
?? You should then discuss the second example. In this example, when the professor hit himself with the hammer, he did not want to upset his daughter and told her not to worry. These words, however, conflicted with his nonverbal behavior, such as his shaking his hand in pain and his trembling voice, so his daughter did not believe the verbal message. In this case, the nonverbal message was more accurate.
?? You will not have time to repeat all of the details from the lecture and reading, and you should not try to do that. You should integrate points from both to answer the question completely. You need to give only sufficient details to explain how the two examples relate to the overall idea of how nonverbal communication contributes to verbal messages.
?? Your response should be intelligible, should demonstrate effective use of grammar and vocabulary, and should be well developed and coherent. Your response is scored using the Integrated Speaking Rubric (see Appendix A).
[听力原文]
TRACK 16 TRANSCRIPT
Narrator
?? Now read a passage from a psychology textbook. You have 45 seconds to read the passage. Begin reading now.
TRACK 17 TRANSCRIPT
Narrator
?? Now listen to part of a lecture on this topic in a psychology course.
Professor
?? Last month my favorite uncle paid me a surprise visit. I hadn't seen him in many years... The doorbell rang, I opened the door, and there was Uncle Pete. Now, I'm sure when I saw him I said something like: "Uncle Pete! What a surprise! How nice to see you!" Anyway, my wife was standing next to me and according to her—I wasn't really aware of this—my eyes got really wide and I broke into a huge big smile. She said I was actually jumping up and down, like a little boy. Well, anyway, later that evening Uncle Pete told me how very, very good he felt when he saw how happy I was to see him.
?? But compare that with this: my daughter... she's six... We were building a bird-house together last week. And I was showing her how to use a hammer and nail. And of course, stupid me, I wasn't being very careful and I smashed my thumb with the hammer. Boy, did it hurt! I almost felt like screaming, but I didn't want to upset my daughter, so I said, "Don't worry, honey. It's nothing." Meanwhile, I was shaking my hand, as if that would stop my thumb from hurting, and my face was contorted in pain. My voice was trembling too. So even though I told my daughter I was OK, I'm sure she didn't believe me. Because she kept asking me if I was OK.
Narrator
?? Explain how the examples from the professor's lecture illustrate the relationship between verbal and nonverbal communication.
解析:
语音播放
You will now read a short passage and listen to a conversation on the same topic. You will then be asked a question about them. After you hear the question, give yourself 30 seconds to prepare your response. Then record yourself speaking for 60 seconds.
?? Listen to Track 14.
??
Evening Computer Classes May Be Added

?? The computer department is considering offering evening classes in the fall. The proposal to add the classes is a response to student complaints that daytime computer classes have become increasingly overcrowded and there are no longer enough computers available. The department has decided that despite some added expense, the most cost-effective way of addressing this problem is by adding computer classes in the evening. It is hoped that this change will decrease the number of students enrolled in day classes and thus guarantee individual access to computers for all students in computer classes.
?? Listen to Track 15.
??
?? The man expresses his opinion about the proposal described in the article. Briefly summarize the proposal. Then state his opinion about the proposal and explain the reasons he gives for holding that opinion.
答案:First, as the question states, you should provide a brief summary of the proposal, which is for the computer department to add evening classes in the fall. You can also provide a brief summary of the reason that they are doing this (overcrowded conditions in the daytime computer classes). You should not spend too much time on this summary; if you attempt to provide many details from the reading, you may not have enough time to discuss both of the man's reasons for disagreeing with the proposal. For this item type, a brief summary is all that is necessary. You should make sure that your summary is clear enough for the listener to understand the proposal without having access to additional information.
?? After the summary, you should state the man's opinion of the university's proposal to add computer courses in the evening. In this case, the man disagrees with the university's proposal.
?? You should then convey the two main reasons he gives for holding that opinion. You will need to connect information from the conversation to the reading in order for your response to be complete. First, the man says that the idea to add evening classes will not solve the problem of over-crowding because most students are too busy to take classes at night. You could also provide one of the examples why students are busy, such as jobs or family.
?? Your response should also convey the man's second reason for not agreeing with the university's proposal. You should say that the man thinks that offering evening classes won't save money because it will be expensive to add the new classes, and it will be more expensive than buying new computers. You could add that hiring new teachers and keeping the building open late is expensive, or that the rooms are big enough for more computers and that computers are now less expensive than they used to be. You do not, however, have to describe every detail from the conversation as long as you make it clear why the man disagrees with the proposal.
?? Your response should be intelligible, should demonstrate effective use of grammar and vocabulary, and should be well developed and coherent. Your response is scored using the Integrated Speaking Rubric (see Appendix A).
[听力原文]
TRACK 14 TRANSCRIPT
Narrator
?? The computer department is considering making a scheduling change. You will have 45 seconds to read an article in the campus newspaper about the change. Begin reading now.
TRACK 15 TRANSCRIPT
Narrator
?? Now listen to two students discussing the article.
Male student
?? I just don't think this will work.
Female student
?? Why not?
Male student
?? Because it's not gonna solve the problem. Students are busy at night... I mean, we have jobs, families, clubs, social events. Most of us already have something to do every single night of the week.
Female student
?? I see your point. I sure couldn't fit anything into my schedule during the week—I've got swimming practice most nights.
Male student
?? Right. And as far as expense goes, I think they're going about it the wrong way. I mean, it costs money to hire more teachers and keep the academic building open later. Which is a lot more expensive than just simply buying more computers.
Female student
?? More computers?
Male student
?? That's right. Computer prices have come way down the past few years, so the department won't have to spend as much now as they did in the past. Besides, the computer department classrooms, you know, the rooms themselves, they're actually very big... there's plenty of space to add more computers.
Narrator
?? The man expresses his opinion about the proposal described in the article. Briefly summarize the proposal. Then state his opinion about the proposal and explain the reasons he gives for holding that opinion.
解析:
You will now be asked to give your opinion about a familiar topic. Give yourself 15 seconds to prepare your response. Then record yourself speaking for 45 seconds.
?? Listen to Track 13.
?? Many universities now offer academic courses over the Internet. However, some people still prefer learning in traditional classrooms. Which do you think is better? Explain why.
答案:To respond to this particular question, you should clearly state what your opinion is: Do you think it is better to learn in traditional classrooms or take classes over the Internet? Then you should give reasons to support your opinion. If you take the position that you believe Internet or online courses are more effective, you might give the reason that they are more effective because a student can study at anytime from anywhere. You might further support that reason by using an example from your own experience. You might say that you learn best in the evenings and so online courses allow you to learn when you are best able to concentrate, whereas in a traditional classroom, you have to concentrate at a particular time.
?? If you believe that online courses are not better than learning in a traditional classroom, you might give an example of something that happens in the classroom that makes learning effective. You might say that direct contact with a teacher is important. You could continue to develop your response by giving examples of how direct contact is beneficial to learning.
?? Keep in mind that there is no "correct" answer to this question. Whether you prefer courses over the Internet or in traditional classrooms, your answer can be supported with examples and details. It is important to make sure that you state your opinion and develop your response with good examples and relevant details.
?? Your response should be intelligible, should demonstrate effective use of grammar and vocabulary, and should be well developed and coherent. Your response is scored using the Independent Speaking Rubric (see Appendix A).
[听力原文]
Narrator
?? Many universities now offer academic courses over the Internet. However, some people still prefer learning in traditional classrooms. Which do you think is better? Explain why.
解析:
SPEAKING
??? This section measures your ability to speak in English about a variety of topics.
?? There are six questions in this section. For each question, you will be given a short time to prepare your response. When the preparation time is up, answer the question as completely as possible in the time indicated for that question. You should record your responses so that you can review them later and compare them with the answer key and scoring rubrics.
语音播放 ?
Track 12——13
1.? You will now be asked to speak about a familiar topic. Give yourself 15 seconds to prepare your response. Then record yourself speaking for 45 seconds.
?? Listen to Track 12.
?? What do you miss most about your home when you are away? Use specific details in your explanation.
答案:?There are many ways you could answer this particular question. You will need to talk about one or more things about your home that you miss when you are away and provide explanations for why you miss them.
?? You should begin by providing a specific example of something that you miss about your home. For example, this could be your family, your favorite room, or your mother's cooking. You should then provide more details about why you miss this. For example, you could describe your favorite room and talk about the comfortable chair that is in it and how you have had wonderful talks with your family and friends there. Or you could say that you miss your mother's cooking because she prepares special, spicy food that you cannot get when you are away from home. It is important to develop your ideas with specific explanations. You should not merely give a list of things you miss without providing details that help the listener understand why you miss them.
?? Your response should be intelligible, should demonstrate effective use of grammar and vocabulary, and should be well developed and coherent. Your response is scored using the Independent Speaking Rubric (see Appendix A).
[听力原文]
Narrator
?? What do you miss most about your home when you are away? Use specific details in your explanation.
解析:
?Listen to Track 11.
A. Other students should comment on the man's remark.
B. Most people would agree with the man's opinion.
C. Artwork funded by the government is usually of excellent quality.
D. The government project was not a waste of money.

答案:D
解析:[听力原文]
Narrator
?? Listen again to part of the discussion. Then answer the question.
Male student
?? Yeah, but didn't the government end up wasting a lot of money for art that wasn't even very good?
Professor
?? Uh, some people might say that, but wasn't the primary objective of the Federal Art Project to provide jobs?
Narrator
?? What does the professor imply when she says this:
Professor
?? Uh, some people might say that, but wasn't the primary objective of the Federal Art Project to provide jobs?
Track 11
语音播放
答案:0
解析:

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