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Speaking Question 3? ?Reading

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摘要:Speaking Question 3? ?Reading? ?In this question, you will read a short passage on an academic subject, and then listen to a talk
Speaking Question 3
? ?Reading
? ?In this question, you will read a short passage on an academic subject, and then listen to a talk on the same topic. Then you will answer a question using information from both the reading and the talk. After the question, you will have 30 seconds to prepare you response and 60 seconds to speak.
? ?Now read the passage about cognitive dissonance. You have 50 seconds to read the passage. Begin reading now.
? ?
Cognitive Dissonance

? ?Cognitive dissonance is the confusion caused by conflicting information. When an established belief is contradicted by new information, the mind struggles to resolve the conflict. This resolution may come by changing the belief, changing the new information, or adding more information that supports the belief. Beliefs related to self-image are very important and cause the strongest dissonance. When confronted with information that contradicts a perception of the self, a person is likely to eliminate the new information and seek more comforting information to overcome it. In contrast, information conflicting with a belief about someone else is more likely to lead to altering the belief about that person.
? ?Listening
? ?
? ?Question
? ?The professor describes Joe's behavior in two different cases. Explain how these examples relate to cognitive dissonance and self-perception.
答案:?Sample Answer:
? ?The reading passage gives some ways that a person deals with cognitive dissonance, in particular, cognitive dissonance related to self-perception. Beliefs about the self are less likely to change because a person defends those beliefs by destroying conflicting information. In the example, we see Joe defending his belief in himself by making excuses for himself or asking other people to make excuses for him. Or he could simply try to forget about the information that caused the cognitive dissonance. His mind is working very hard to get rid of the information that threatens his self-perception. However, when Joe sees Mary singing poorly, he does not try to defend his belief in her. Instead, he easily accepts the perception of her as a poor singer. This is because the belief is not connected to his own self-perception.
[听力原文]
? ?Alright, so we're talking about cognitive dissonance. As you know, dissonance is strongest when it relates to our perception of ourselves. Let's say that Joe thinks he's a good singer. He actually prides himself on his singing voice. Now, let's say he gets up and sings at a wedding, but the people respond negatively. What is Joe going to do with this information? He might think that those people don't appreciate good singing or that he just wasn't in good voice THAT DAY. Maybe he asks his friends about his performance and is comforted to hear their reassuring opinions. He might even find a way to forget about the incident altogether and preserve his belief that he's a spectacular singer.
? ?Alright. Now Joe's at, ah, let's say a party, and his friend Mary decides to sing. Up to this point, Joe believes that Mary is a good singer. He's heard her sing before, and she did a pretty good job of it, but this time her singing is quite bad. In this case, Joe is more likely to change his original belief and think, "Well, maybe Mary's not as good a singer as I thought." You see that he doesn't make as much effort to defend the belief when it's about Mary. Because the dissonance is not related to him personally, Joe readily takes care of the disagreeing perceptions by accepting the evidence he has just perceived.

解析:

本题要求考生阅读短文后,收听与短文内容相关的讲座,然后根据这两段内容回答问题。考生只要通过阅读短文把握内容的核心思想,并通过听力讲座联系短文主要内容的相关细节,就可以比较容易地作出回答。
? ?阅读短文首先概括介绍了什么是认知失调,然后介绍了引起矛盾的新信息是否和自我相关,以及随之而来的失调的强度和处理方法。在听力讲座中,通过假设Joe和他人之间在认知失调发生的情况下如何反应的实例来进一步证明短文的观点。
? ?参考答案通过三段式结构巧妙地将短文的核心含义与听力讲座联系了起来。首先,概括了短文涉及的认知失调的含义;然后阐述了在发生认知失调时,Joe为了坚持自己以前的认识,试图不受导致失调新要素影响的行为,同时解释说自己的认识不会轻易改变。但相反,在其他人身上发生认知失调时,因为不是Joe自身接受的新信息,因此他很容易接受了这种新信息,并且改变想法的可能性很大。像这样,参考答案灵活运用了短文的所有信息,用考生自己的表达方式很好地作出了回答。

Speaking Question 4
? ?Reading
???In this question, you will read a short passage about a campus situation and then listen to a talk on the same topic. Then you will answer a question using information from both the reading and the talk. After the question, you will have 30 seconds to prepare you response and 60 seconds to speak.
? ?The Students' Council has voted for a universal bus pass. Read the article from the university newspaper about the plan. You will have 50 seconds to read the announcement. Begin reading now.
? ?
Universal Bus Pass is a Go

? ?The Students' Council has ratified the positive results of Thursday's campus wide referendum on the Universal Bus Pass. The UBP will come into effect this coming academic year, and a fee of $75 will be added to the student fees to cover the cost of the pass. The pass will be part of the student card and will be valid for one year. Earlier this year, the Council proposed a Universal Bus Pass to reduce parking congestion and promote green alternatives to transportation to and from campus. However, students will not be able to opt out of the plan as a result of the agreement negotiated with the Transit Authority.
? ?Listening
? ?
? ?Question
? ?The woman expresses her opinion of the decision by the Students' Council to implement the Universal Bus Pass. State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for having that opinion.
答案:?Sample Answer:
? ?The woman is strongly against the policy to implement the Universal Bus Pass for three main reasons. First, she feels that the bus pass only benefits people who live in town or on bus routes. The woman lives an hour away from the campus in a place with poor bus service to the university so she has to drive. Second, she is upset that she has to pay for the bus pass because she already pays to park. She also thinks it's unfair that she can't opt out of the plan. Although the man suggests that she look at it as contributing to the environment, she would rather use that money for gas. Lastly, the woman feels that the decision does not really reflect the wishes of the majority since such a small number of students actually vote.
[听力原文]
S1 [Angrily] I can't believe it!
S2 What? Can't believe what?
S1 The Universal Bus Pass! It's been ratified by the Students' Council and will take effect this coming September.
S2 Oh! That's great! Then we'll be able to take the bus whenever we want and won't have to scrounge for change.
S1 Oh sure, it's great if you live in town where the bus service is regular and efficient. But I live outside the city, an hour away, and the bus service to the campus is almost non-existent, so I have to drive if I want to get here in time for my classes.
S2 Yeah, I get your point.
S1 Exactly! So that means I have to pay for parking and now they want to charge me $75 for a bus pass I won't use. Then, to add insult to injury, I can't opt out.
S2 Well, I know it's frustrating, but I know the Transit Authority is giving us a great deal on the annual pass and they'll only do it if everyone pays into it. Think of it as doing your part for the Green Revolution.
S1 [Scoffs] Oh sure, like I'm donating to a charity, but I don't get a tax receipt. That's gas money. It's so frustrating how something like this gets passed when most of the students on campus don't bother to vote.
S2 Well, that's the democratic process for you.

解析:

口语部分综合题中第一道题要求考生先阅读短文,然后听对话,最后回答。考生有40-50秒钟的时间阅读短文,然后听与短文内容相关的对话,准备大约30秒钟开始回答问题,时间为60秒钟。其实在阅读了题目及相关短文以后,陈述出大学关于特定方案的政策、规定,或是对话中一人提出的与短文相关的观点,并归纳出支持这一观点的理由即可。
? ?所给的阅读短文是关于普通公交车车票实行方案的报道。对话中,一名学生对这一方案的实行持反对观点。短文主要是主张为减少混乱,保护环境,鼓励利用公共交通手段,实行普通公交车车票方案。对话中,女学生列举了几条理由,对实行这一制度表示反对。
? ?为了更好地归纳回答,要像参考答案一样,以提及女学生反对公交车车票试行方案的事实开头。然后按顺序提出理由即可。在这里,重点考察的不是要考生提出自己的观点和理由,而是要求考生根据阅读短文和对话涉及的内容说明其中一个人物的观点。参考答案中女学生的反对理由如下:
? ?1.普通公交车车票只能使住在市内或是公交车沿线的人们受益。
? ?2.在必须使用私家车,并且必须交停车费的情况下,不使用公交车车票还要交钱的方案不合理。
? ?3.在大部分学生没有参与投票的情况下通过提案是不正确的。

Speaking?Question?5
1.???In?this?section?of?the?test,?you?will?be?asked?to?choose?between?two?opinions.?You?will?need?to?answer?the?question?by?supporting?your?choice?with?examples.?After?the?question,?you?will?have?15?seconds?to?prepare?and?45?seconds?to?speak.
???Some?students?prefer?to?do?their?research?online?while?others?prefer?to?go?to?the?library?to?conduct?their?research.?Which?approach?to?research?do?you?think?is?better?and?why?
答案:?Sample?Answer:
???I?think?that?it?is?important?to?go?to?the?library?to?conduct?research?for?several?reasons.?First,?if?you?are?at?the?library,?you?can?ask?the?reference?librarians?for?assistance?if?you?have?a?hard?time?finding?relevant?materials.?Second,?the?library?has?computers?that?you?can?use?to?do?online?research?so?you?can?still?use?that?resource,?but?there?is?the?added?benefit?of?being?able?to?find?books?as?well.?Thirdly,?many?sources?of?information?are?still?not?available?online,?such?as?books,?some?periodicals,?and?primary?sources.?Restricting?your?research?to?online?sources?means?that?you?may?miss?other?important?resources,?which?could?affect?your?grade?on?whatever?assignment?you're?working?on.
解析:

这类题型主要是以日常生活中可以接触到的内容为主题,要求考生在45秒钟内回答问题。一般问题中会提供两种选择,但是两种选择之间并没有是非对错之分,所以只要在两个选择中选择自己同意的观点,并使自己的回答具有说服力就可以了。这类题型也是要求考生在15秒钟内做准备,然后在45秒内流畅作答。本题要求考生在在线查资料和去图书馆查资料两种方式中选择其一并说明理由。
???参考答案中清晰地阐述了利用图书馆进行资料搜集的三个优点:当找资料出现困难时,可以去找图书馆工作人员寻求帮助;而且还可以通过图书馆的电脑查找在线资料,并随时翻阅图书;在线资料没有的信息,还可以通过定期刊物及资料进行查找。参考答案以清晰的层次列举出了这三个优点。
???如果考生选择在线查找资料进行回答,可以参考下文。
???在线查找资料有以下几点好处:
???1.在线查找可以随时随地进行;图书馆到了时间就会闭馆,但是在线查找可以在任何时间上网寻找资料,不受时间的制约。
???2.具有速度快的优点;在图书馆需要直接翻书确认要查找的资料是不是与查找的内容相符,因此要花很长时间。但在线查找可以通过检索关键字搜索想要获得的信息,因此可以节约时间。
???3.可以查找最新资料。通过在线查找信息方便容易,而且每天都有大量的新信息传输到各个领域,所以在线查找可以最先利用这些信息。?

SPEAKING
? ?In this section, you will be able to demonstrate your ability to speak about a variety of topics.
? ?In questions 1 and 2, you will be asked to speak about familiar topics. Your responses will be scored based on your ability to speak clearly and coherently about the topics. In questions 3 and 4, you will read a short text first. The text will go away and then you will listen to a talk on the same topic. You will then respond to a question based on what you have read and heard. You will need to combine appropriate information from both the text and the talk to provide a complete answer.
? ?In questions 5 and 6, you will first listen to part of a conversation or a lecture. Then you will be asked a question about what you have heard.
? ?Your responses to questions 3 to 6 will be scored on your ability to speak clearly and coherently and your ability to accurately convey information about what you have read and/or heard.
? ?You may take notes while you read the texts and listen to the conversations and lectures. You may use your notes to help prepare your response.
? ?Listen carefully to the directions for each question. The directions will not appear on the screen.
? ?You will be given a short time to prepare your response for each question. A clock will show how much preparation time is remaining. When the preparation time is over, you will be told to begin your response. A clock will show you how much response time is remaining. A message will appear on the screen when the response time has ended.
Speaking Question 6
In this section of the test, you will be asked to speak about a personal opinion. You will need to answer the question by supporting your opinion with examples. After the question, you will have 15 seconds to prepare and 45 seconds to speak.
? ?What family member or relative do you admire most? Describe what it is about the person that is so admirable. Please include specific examples and details in your response.
答案:?Sample Answer:
? ?The family member I admire most is my father. We didn't always get along very well. My father was always strict with me. He gave me very little money and always insisted that I be back home by nine o'clock on school nights. At that time I resented these rules but now realize that he was trying to teach me to be disciplined and thrifty. Now my father and I have a strong relationship. I can always go to him for help when I face problems or difficult decisions. I now look back and realize that his strict rules were to help me develop into a responsible and respectful person.
解析:

托福考试的口语部分一共有六道题。考官评分时一般注重作答的展开方式、表达、发音的准确性等。第一道题的类型是就所给题目用15秒钟的时间准备,然后在45秒钟内陈述自己的观点。因此要求考生在15秒钟内进行有条理的陈述。参考答案中要求考生描述家庭成员及亲戚中最值得尊敬的人。如果考生能够较快想出值得尊敬的家庭成员,并想到与他(她)相关的事迹则可;相反,如果没有马上想出特别的人,一般情况下描述自己的父母会比较稳妥。例如,假设你尊敬自己的父亲,那么优秀的父亲所具有的责任感,勤劳、慈祥等优点也会很容易就能想起来。因为15秒钟的准备时间很短,不宜做详细的笔记。因此有必要平时练习在固定的时间内就几个话题进行表达和陈述。
? ?在参考答案中,考生最尊敬自己的父亲。小时候,他不喜欢父亲的严厉。但是后来,当他得知父亲是为了教育他成为有责任感和朴素的人时,他和父亲建立了良好的关系。参考答案以此为主题确定了框架。考生以父亲不给他零花钱、严格控制他放学回家的时间等为例,说明他对父亲严格要求的不满。结尾部分,他讲述了与父亲消除了矛盾,建立了融洽的父子关系。从参考答案中可以看出,回答这样的题型只要列举2~3个理由,并各举例说明就可以了。

?According to the professor, how do humans help mosquitoes?
  • A. By providing bodies of standing water.
  • B. By constructing elaborate sewer systems.
  • C. By keeping small pets outdoors.
  • D. By using so many tires.
答案:A
解析:

细节题 教授在说明蚊子和人类的关系时提到,人类为蚊子繁殖栖息地的形成提供了很大的帮助。下水道和丢弃的轮胎等处都利于蚊子的繁殖,因此B项和D项不是正确答案。C项的内容在讲座中没有涉及。A项说明了蚊子繁殖的重要条件,因此是正确答案。

?The professor implies that the relationship between mosquitoes and humans has characteristics of which types of symbiosis?
  • A. Amensalism and commensalism.
  • B. Parasitism and commensalism.
  • C. Competition and mutualism.
  • D. Competition and parasitism.
答案:D
解析:

推理题 讲座的后半部分提到,人类与蚊子的关系就是互害的竞争关系。接着,讲座中阐述了人类为蚊子提供了可以繁殖的环境,蚊子从人类获取了环境方面的利益,但人类却受蚊子的毒害。因此这一关系可以看作寄生关系。D项是正确答案。

?According to the lecture, what potential benefits are presented to a plant by killing off surrounding plants?
? ?Click on 2 answers.
  • A. Poisonous soil.
  • B. Less competition for ground resources.
  • C. More exposure to the sun.
  • D. Elimination of predatory species.
答案:B,C,
解析:

细节题 教授在提到共生关系时指出,偏害共生关系也有间接作用的可能性,他还举例说明有一种植物分泌化学物质来消除周边植物。这种植物为了独占土壤中的营养成分,独占太阳光而分泌化学物质来消除周边的其他植物。

?According to the professor, why is it difficult to classify remoras' symbiotic relationships?
  • A. They appear to demonstrate parasitic behavior.
  • B. Their behavior can be both harmless and helpful.
  • C. They derive various benefits from their hosts.
  • D. Researchers have inadequate observational equipment.
答案:B
解析:

细节题 教授在讲座的中间部分提到,鲫鱼的行动状态看起来像是寄生在寄主身上,但实际上并不是这样。相反,如果鲫鱼吃掉对鲫鱼寄生的寄主有害的生物,反而对寄主有利。因此B项是正确答案。

?Why does the professor mention a tick?
  • A. To compare a tick's behavior to that of a wolf.
  • B. To contrast a tick's behavior from that of a mosquito.
  • C. To differentiate ticks from parasites.
  • D. To support the example of a mosquito as a parasit
答案:B
解析:

结构题 寄生虫和蚊子的最大区别在于,寄生虫从寄主那里汲取养分后继续附着在寄主身上,而蚊子则离开了。为了更加明确地介绍蚊子的习性,教授将寄生虫的习性与之进行了对比和比较,因此B项是正确答案。

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