Speaking Question 3? ?Reading
? ?In this question, you will read a short passage on an academic subject, and then listen to a talk on the same topic. Then you will answer a question using information from both the reading and the talk. After the question, you will have 30 seconds to prepare you response and 60 seconds to speak.
? ?Now read the passage about cognitive dissonance. You have 50 seconds to read the passage. Begin reading now.
? ?Cognitive dissonance is the confusion caused by conflicting information. When an established belief is contradicted by new information, the mind struggles to resolve the conflict. This resolution may come by changing the belief, changing the new information, or adding more information that supports the belief. Beliefs related to self-image are very important and cause the strongest dissonance. When confronted with information that contradicts a perception of the self, a person is likely to eliminate the new information and seek more comforting information to overcome it. In contrast, information conflicting with a belief about someone else is more likely to lead to altering the belief about that person.
? ?The professor describes Joe's behavior in two different cases. Explain how these examples relate to cognitive dissonance and self-perception.
? ?The reading passage gives some ways that a person deals with cognitive dissonance, in particular, cognitive dissonance related to self-perception. Beliefs about the self are less likely to change because a person defends those beliefs by destroying conflicting information. In the example, we see Joe defending his belief in himself by making excuses for himself or asking other people to make excuses for him. Or he could simply try to forget about the information that caused the cognitive dissonance. His mind is working very hard to get rid of the information that threatens his self-perception. However, when Joe sees Mary singing poorly, he does not try to defend his belief in her. Instead, he easily accepts the perception of her as a poor singer. This is because the belief is not connected to his own self-perception.
? ?Alright, so we're talking about cognitive dissonance. As you know, dissonance is strongest when it relates to our perception of ourselves. Let's say that Joe thinks he's a good singer. He actually prides himself on his singing voice. Now, let's say he gets up and sings at a wedding, but the people respond negatively. What is Joe going to do with this information? He might think that those people don't appreciate good singing or that he just wasn't in good voice THAT DAY. Maybe he asks his friends about his performance and is comforted to hear their reassuring opinions. He might even find a way to forget about the incident altogether and preserve his belief that he's a spectacular singer.
? ?Alright. Now Joe's at, ah, let's say a party, and his friend Mary decides to sing. Up to this point, Joe believes that Mary is a good singer. He's heard her sing before, and she did a pretty good job of it, but this time her singing is quite bad. In this case, Joe is more likely to change his original belief and think, "Well, maybe Mary's not as good a singer as I thought." You see that he doesn't make as much effort to defend the belief when it's about Mary. Because the dissonance is not related to him personally, Joe readily takes care of the disagreeing perceptions by accepting the evidence he has just perceived.
???In this question, you will read a short passage about a campus situation and then listen to a talk on the same topic. Then you will answer a question using information from both the reading and the talk. After the question, you will have 30 seconds to prepare you response and 60 seconds to speak.
? ?The Students' Council has voted for a universal bus pass. Read the article from the university newspaper about the plan. You will have 50 seconds to read the announcement. Begin reading now.
? ?The Students' Council has ratified the positive results of Thursday's campus wide referendum on the Universal Bus Pass. The UBP will come into effect this coming academic year, and a fee of $75 will be added to the student fees to cover the cost of the pass. The pass will be part of the student card and will be valid for one year. Earlier this year, the Council proposed a Universal Bus Pass to reduce parking congestion and promote green alternatives to transportation to and from campus. However, students will not be able to opt out of the plan as a result of the agreement negotiated with the Transit Authority.
? ?The woman expresses her opinion of the decision by the Students' Council to implement the Universal Bus Pass. State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for having that opinion.
? ?The woman is strongly against the policy to implement the Universal Bus Pass for three main reasons. First, she feels that the bus pass only benefits people who live in town or on bus routes. The woman lives an hour away from the campus in a place with poor bus service to the university so she has to drive. Second, she is upset that she has to pay for the bus pass because she already pays to park. She also thinks it's unfair that she can't opt out of the plan. Although the man suggests that she look at it as contributing to the environment, she would rather use that money for gas. Lastly, the woman feels that the decision does not really reflect the wishes of the majority since such a small number of students actually vote.
S1 [Angrily] I can't believe it!
S2 What? Can't believe what?
S1 The Universal Bus Pass! It's been ratified by the Students' Council and will take effect this coming September.
S2 Oh! That's great! Then we'll be able to take the bus whenever we want and won't have to scrounge for change.
S1 Oh sure, it's great if you live in town where the bus service is regular and efficient. But I live outside the city, an hour away, and the bus service to the campus is almost non-existent, so I have to drive if I want to get here in time for my classes.
S2 Yeah, I get your point.
S1 Exactly! So that means I have to pay for parking and now they want to charge me $75 for a bus pass I won't use. Then, to add insult to injury, I can't opt out.
S2 Well, I know it's frustrating, but I know the Transit Authority is giving us a great deal on the annual pass and they'll only do it if everyone pays into it. Think of it as doing your part for the Green Revolution.
S1 [Scoffs] Oh sure, like I'm donating to a charity, but I don't get a tax receipt. That's gas money. It's so frustrating how something like this gets passed when most of the students on campus don't bother to vote.
S2 Well, that's the democratic process for you.
? ?In questions 1 and 2, you will be asked to speak about familiar topics. Your responses will be scored based on your ability to speak clearly and coherently about the topics. In questions 3 and 4, you will read a short text first. The text will go away and then you will listen to a talk on the same topic. You will then respond to a question based on what you have read and heard. You will need to combine appropriate information from both the text and the talk to provide a complete answer.
? ?In questions 5 and 6, you will first listen to part of a conversation or a lecture. Then you will be asked a question about what you have heard.
? ?Your responses to questions 3 to 6 will be scored on your ability to speak clearly and coherently and your ability to accurately convey information about what you have read and/or heard.
? ?You may take notes while you read the texts and listen to the conversations and lectures. You may use your notes to help prepare your response.
? ?Listen carefully to the directions for each question. The directions will not appear on the screen.
? ?You will be given a short time to prepare your response for each question. A clock will show how much preparation time is remaining. When the preparation time is over, you will be told to begin your response. A clock will show you how much response time is remaining. A message will appear on the screen when the response time has ended.
In this section of the test, you will be asked to speak about a personal opinion. You will need to answer the question by supporting your opinion with examples. After the question, you will have 15 seconds to prepare and 45 seconds to speak.
? ?What family member or relative do you admire most? Describe what it is about the person that is so admirable. Please include specific examples and details in your response.
? ?The family member I admire most is my father. We didn't always get along very well. My father was always strict with me. He gave me very little money and always insisted that I be back home by nine o'clock on school nights. At that time I resented these rules but now realize that he was trying to teach me to be disciplined and thrifty. Now my father and I have a strong relationship. I can always go to him for help when I face problems or difficult decisions. I now look back and realize that his strict rules were to help me develop into a responsible and respectful person.
- A. By providing bodies of standing water.
- B. By constructing elaborate sewer systems.
- C. By keeping small pets outdoors.
- D. By using so many tires.
- A. Amensalism and commensalism.
- B. Parasitism and commensalism.
- C. Competition and mutualism.
- D. Competition and parasitism.
? ?Click on 2 answers.
- A. Poisonous soil.
- B. Less competition for ground resources.
- C. More exposure to the sun.
- D. Elimination of predatory species.
- A. They appear to demonstrate parasitic behavior.
- B. Their behavior can be both harmless and helpful.
- C. They derive various benefits from their hosts.
- D. Researchers have inadequate observational equipment.
- A. To compare a tick's behavior to that of a wolf.
- B. To contrast a tick's behavior from that of a mosquito.
- C. To differentiate ticks from parasites.
- D. To support the example of a mosquito as a parasit